Zombie Multiculturalism….

Academics and activists, preachers and politicians have got a lot to learn from movies like ‘Dawn of the Dead’ because the debate surrounding multiculturalism is littered by zombies…To find out more carry on reading my new article just published in the journal ‘Culture and Religion’.



Religious Identity and Superdiversity

It’s become a new buzz word thanks largely to the work of the social anthropologist Steve Vertovec – ‘superdiversity’…..but what does it reveal that we don’t know already? And what might the idea of complex, interwoven identities that flow and change have to say to the way we think about city life, about identity and about faith in the ‘liquid’ city?

Within the life of the 21st century city even our diversity has become diverse. There are for example more than 300 languages spoke in London schools and almost 200 self-defined religous identities. We live perhaps in a both-and society rather than an either-or world reminiscent perhaps of what Homi Bhabha calls a ‘third space’ – the place where who we are is not fixed or fenced off but in continuous process of becoming in relationship with others. And yet we also live in societies that are more starkly divided along ethnic and religious lines than ever before. A resurgent ‘orientalism’ has accompanied what Samuel Huntingdon called the ‘clash of civilisations’ in the mid 1990s, the ‘othering’ of the so called ‘war on terror’, the rise of far right street movement like the English Defence League in the UK and rising levels of Islamophobia….What role might religous faith have to play as we wrestle with diversity, the fear of difference and struggle to forge a liberative cultural politics of difference?

Does faith entrench fixed and forever identities – build up a kind of religious bonding social capital – OK for those on the ‘inside’ but excluding those whom we perceive to be ‘different’ or ‘other’? Alternatively might it be the case that outward facing and dynamic faith based identities can build links, a kind of religious bridging social capital? What’s life like in your city? Is superdiversity just another bit of grandiose academic jargon or does it grasp a new level of diversity within our diversity and invite us to think afresh about the cities we call home?

The debate featured above focuses on ‘Religious Identity in a Superdiverse Society’ and is part of the ‘Religion and Society’ programme in the UK….along with the video there are transcripts that invite further questions….See what you think…

The Fear of Difference

The last ten days in the UK have been characterised by fear, pain, violence and unlikely snatches of hope following the brutal murder of the soldier Lee Rigby in Woolwich in south east London.

The tragic events have reminded us again in the most violent manner possible that not everybody is signed up to the liberal (and sometimes disengaged and distant) affirmation of multiculturalism. The super-diverse city can look very different, full of vibrant energy and creativity form the vantage point of relatively affluent city suburbs than it does in majority Muslim inner city communities scarred by unemployment and the fear of the far-right or on majority white and socially excluded estates where racists like the far-right British National Party and the English Defence League stalk the streets looking for people who might swallow the lie that ‘It’s all the fault of those Muslims.’ When life is hard many of us look for someone to blame, for a scapegoat onto whom we can pile our pain. For a small number alienated young British-Muslims [mostly men] the blame is piled on U.S and U.K foreign policy or on the excesses of a liberal materialist culture. For a small number of equally alienated young white men [again mostly men] groups like the BNP and more recently the EDL provide a convenient scapegoat – the British-Muslim community.

Mainstream political parties often don’t help matters. Knee jerk populist crack downs on free speech or on immigration or on Muslim community groups play to our basest instincts and to the stock readership of certain right wing national newspapers. Multiculturalism, the current UK Prime Minister David Cameron tells us ‘has failed because Muslim communities have not fully integrated into the UK.’ I wonder how much hands on experience of everyday diversity Mr Cameron got at Eton, or in his rural Oxfordshire constituency or how often he gets out of 10 Downing Street!

The urban studies writer Leonie Sandercock tells us that the ‘terrain of difference’ has become normative in the cities of Europe and the USA. She is right and as the theologian Andrew Davey reminds us such diversity is no longer confined to cosmopolitan cities like Birmingham, London, New York or Los Angeles.

Against such a backdrop how might people of faith respond? Given a faith that God created all people in the divine image – equal, one race, valuable one and all – a fundamental conviction of all of the world’s faiths is that racism is a sin. No messing, no weak excuses – a sin.

One possible response is found in food and flowers. Selfless giving like the Muslim communities who collected money to donate flowers to the bereaved family of Lee Rigby. Or hospitality like that shown by young Muslims in York who took tea and biscuits out to and EDL mob demonstrating outside their Mosque and ended up inviting the EDL into the Mosque grounds for a game of football!

The Bible tells us again and again to ‘love the stranger’, that when we welcome the stranger we may be ‘entertaining angels unawares’.

We cannot and must not run away from or spiritualise the fear of difference because it’s real. However might it be possible that when we struggle together over low pay or to improve our childrens’ playground (or when we give each other flowers or tea and football!) that our difference can begin to become a source of liberation.

Liberative difference does not meet the pain of Lee Rigby’s grieving family, or the anguish of Muslims in the UK who have been threatened or attacked since his murder in Woolwich but it just might offer us a way forward…..Not trendy pain-free suburban multiculturalism but hard edged liberative difference that build social justice for all and embodies God’s bias to the oppressed – wherever and whoever they may be.

Here’s hoping and praying!